Feline Infectious Disease
Description of the disease: what kind of disease, etiological factors, affected species, mention the 2 types and the neurological from of FIP –
Gross and microscopic changes: theoretical literature review of macroscopic and microscopic changes in the body during FIP up to 1500 words. (mention also the neurological form and make it clear by using images from another case).
(my case is about a cat where in the last 3 days, coordination disorders were observed – he could not get up, jump). I have received slides where you can see that there is inflammation lot of inflammation cells, peritonitis perivascular cuffing are seen. It would be nice if there is something is mentioned about in the microscopic changes) – so not about this case, but that I can write in the end a conclusion about it
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Feline Infectious peritonitis
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease that affects domestic cats and some other species. It is caused by a specific strain of the feline coronavirus, and it can manifest in two forms: wet (effusive) and dry (non-effusive). The wet form involves fluid accumulation in body cavities, while the dry form is characterized by granulomatous inflammation in various organs. Additionally, FIP can also present as a neurological form, which affects the central nervous system. In this answer, I will describe the disease and its etiological factors, as well as discuss the gross and microscopic changes observed in FIP.
Description of the disease:
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease primarily affecting domestic cats. It is caused by a strain of the feline coronavirus, known as FCoV. FIP occurs when a mutation in the viral genome allows it to change from a relatively benign form, causing feline enteric coronavirus (FECV), to its more pathogenic variant, causing FIP.
The transmission of FCoV occurs primarily through the fecal-oral route, where the virus is shed in the feces of infected cats. Close contact and shared living spaces facilitate transmission, especially in multi-cat households or catteries. Other risk factors include stress, overcrowding, and poor hygiene practices.
FIP can affect cats of all ages but is more commonly observed in young kittens and cats between the ages of six months and two years. Certain breeds, such as Abyssinians, Bengals, and Siamese, may be more predisposed to developing FIP.
There are two forms of FIP: wet (effusive) and dry (non-effusive). The wet form is characterized by the accumulation of fluid in body cavities, such as the abdomen or chest. This results in a swollen and distended appearance. Cats with the wet form of FIP may exhibit symptoms such as weight loss, abdominal distension, difficulty breathing, and lethargy.
On the other hand, the dry form of FIP is marked by the formation of granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system (CNS). Cats with the dry form may display a wide range of symptoms depending on the affected organs, including depression, anorexia, fever, and neurological deficits.
Neurological FIP is a variant of the disease that specifically affects the CNS. It can cause various neurological symptoms, such as coordination disorders, seizures, behavior changes, and paralysis. This form of FIP is considered more severe and often has a poor prognosis.
Gross and microscopic changes:
FIP involves characteristic gross and microscopic changes in the affected cat’s body. Theoretical literature reviews have described these changes extensively.
Macroscopically, in cases of both wet and dry FIP, examination of affected organs reveals various abnormalities. In the wet form, there is often an accumulation of yellowish fluid in body cavities, leading to distension and a characteristic “wet” appearance. This fluid is rich in inflammatory cells and may show fibrin clots.
In the dry form, the affected organs exhibit multifocal granulomatous lesions. These lesions vary in size and can be observed in various organs, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, and CNS. These lesions consist of aggregates of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and fibroblasts encased in a fibrinoid material. These granulomas can lead to the destruction of normal tissue architecture and organ dysfunction.
In the case of neurological FIP, the presence of inflammation in the CNS can be observed histologically. Inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, infiltrate the meninges and the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord. This infiltration contributes to the neurological symptoms observed in affected cats.
To support the above findings, it could be beneficial to include relevant images from another case illustrating the macroscopic and microscopic changes observed in FIP. Additionally, the mentioned websites might provide supplementary information regarding FIP and its pathological changes.
In conclusion, Feline Infectious Peritonitis is a viral disease caused by a strain of the feline coronavirus. It can manifest as wet or dry forms, with the dry form also affecting the CNS in the neurological variant. Grossly, FIP is characterized by fluid accumulation in body cavities (wet form) or granulomatous lesions in various organs (dry form). Histologically, FIP shows inflammation and cellular infiltration, which contribute to the observed pathology and clinical manifestations.
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